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Wilder originally developed the ATR for commodities, although the indicator can also be used for stocks and indices. Simply put, a stock experiencing a high level of volatility has a higher ATR, and a low volatility stock has a lower ATR.

The ATR may be used by market technicians to enter and exit trades, and is a useful tool to add to a trading system. It was created to allow traders to more accurately measure the daily volatility of an asset by using simple calculations. The indicator does not indicate the price direction; rather it is used primarily to measure volatility caused by gaps and limit up or down moves. The ATR is fairly simple to calculate and only needs historical price data.

The ATR is commonly used as an exit method that can be applied no matter how the entry decision is made. One popular technique is known as the "chandelier exit" and was developed by Chuck LeBeau. The chandelier exit places a trailing stop under the highest high the stock reached since you entered the trade. The distance between the highest high and the stop level is defined as some multiple times the ATR.


For example, we can subtract three times the value of the ATR from the highest high since we entered the trade.

The ATR can also give a trader an indication of what size trade to put on in derivatives markets. It is possible to use the ATR approach to position sizing that accounts for an individual trader's own willingness to accept risk as well as the volatility of the underlying market.

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Decline within the general market trend
ADAUSD is actively declining as part of the general market dynamics, being at 0.6448.

On the global chart of the asset, the price is trading in a stable downtrend, turning into a full-fledged trend at the end of March after overcoming the Fibonacci 61.8% full retracement level at 1.2230. However, recently the quotes have been actively rising, having reached the level of an initial Fibonacci retracement of 23.6% at 0.6400, in case of fixing above which the local growth will continue until reaching the level of a complete Fibonacci retracement of 61.8% (0.9298).


Technical indicators confirm a likely upside scenario, reversing towards growth: fast EMAs on the Alligator indicator have already crossed the signal line from below and began to expand the range of fluctuations, while the AO oscillator histogram has moved into the buy zone, having overcome the zero level, and continuing to form rising bars.

Resistance levels: 0.7480, 0.9298 | Support levels: 0.4546, 0.3

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Break-even analysis entails calculating and examining the margin of safety for an entity based on the revenues collected and associated costs. In other words, the analysis shows how many sales it takes to pay for the cost of doing business. Analyzing different price levels relating to various levels of demand, the break-even analysis determines what level of sales are necessary to cover the company's total fixed costs. A demand-side analysis would give a seller significant insight into selling capabilities.

  • Break-even analysis tells you how many units of a product must be sold to cover the fixed and variable costs of production.
  • The break-even point is considered a measure of the margin of safety.
  • Break-even analysis is used broadly, from stock and options trading to corporate budgeting for various projects.

How Break-Even Analysis Works
Break-even analysis is useful in determining the level of production or a targeted desired sales mix. The study is for a company's management’s use only, as the metric and calculations are not used by external parties, such as investors, regulators, or financial institutions. This type of analysis involves a calculation of the break-even point (BEP). The break-even point is calculated by dividing the total fixed costs of production by the price per individual unit less the variable costs of production. Fixed costs are costs that remain the same regardless of how many units are sold.

Break-even analysis looks at the level of fixed costs relative to the profit earned by each additional unit produced and sold. In general, a company with lower fixed costs will have a lower break-even point of sale. For example, a company with $0 of fixed costs will automatically have broken even upon the sale of the first product assuming variable costs do not exceed sales revenue.

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Altcoins are generally defined as all cryptocurrencies other than Bitcoin (BTC). However, some people consider altcoins to be all crytocurrencies other than Bitcoin and Ethereum (ETH) because most cryptocurrencies are forked from one of the two. Some altcoins use different consensus mechanisms to validate transactions and open new blocks, or attempt to distinguish themselves from Bitcoin and Ethereum by providing new or additional capabilities or purposes.

Most altcoins are designed and released by developers who have a different vision or use for their tokens or cryptocurrency. Learn more about altcoins and what makes them different from Bitcoin.

The term altcoin refers to all cryptocurrencies other than Bitcoin (and for some people, Ethereum).
There are tens of thousands of altcoins on the market.
Altcoins come in several types based on what they were designed for.
The future value of altcoins is impossible to predict, but if the blockchain they were designed for continues to be used and developed, the altcoins will continue to exist.


Understanding Altcoins
"Altcoin" is a combination of the two words "alternative" and "coin." It is generally used to include all cryptocurrencies and tokens that are not Bitcoin. Altcoins belong to the blockchains they were explicitly designed for. Many are forks—a splitting of a blockchain that is not compatible with the original chain—from Bitcoin and Ethereum. These forks generally have more than one reason for occurring. Most of the time, a group of developers disagree with others and leave to make their own coin.

Many altcoins are used within their respective blockchains to accomplish something, such as ether, which is used in Ethereum to pay transaction fees. Some developers have created forks of Bitcoin and re-emerged as an attempt to compete with Bitcoin as a payment method, such as Bitcoin Cash.

Others fork and advertise themselves as a way to raise funds for specific projects. For example, the token Bananacoin forked from Ethereum and emerged in 2017 as a way to raise funds for a banana plantation in Laos that claimed to grow organic bananas.

Altcoins attempt to improve upon the perceived limitations of whichever cryptocurrency and blockchain they are forked from or competing with. The first altcoin was Litecoin, forked from the Bitcoin blockchain in 2011. Litecoin uses a different proof-of-work (PoW) consensus mechanism than Bitcoin, called Scrypt (pronounced es-crypt), which is less energy-intensive and quicker than Bitcoin's SHA-256 PoW consensus mechanism.

Ether is another altcoin. However, it did not fork from Bitcoin. It was designed by Vitalik Buterin, Dr. Gavin Wood, and a few others to support Ethereum, the world’s largest blockchain-based scalable virtual machine. Ether (ETH) is used to pay network participants for the transaction validation work their machines do.

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On the four-hour chart, the Bear flag price pattern formed, which has completely completed its formation, reaching 1079.74. At this support level, sellers met resistance caused by forming a "bullish" Engulfing pattern, which included a reversal model of the Hammer candlestick analysis. In this situation, it is obvious that the asset is strongly oversold, and the "bulls" will be able to win back part of the lost positions successfully. After the breakout of the resistance level of 1429.97, the upward dynamics will continue to the area of 1746.30–2153.01. If the support level of 1079.74 is held, the quotes may go down to 898.98–565.22.


On the daily chart, the Downwards triangle price pattern has completed its formation, and now there is the formation of a "bearish" Three black crows candlestick analysis pattern, which signals a continuation of the downtrend. At the support level of 1079.74, a Hammer reversal pattern is formed, indicating a possible reaching of the base price. After successfully forming this pattern, the scenario with an upward trend seems to be the most probable. Consolidating of the "bullish" positions above the resistance level of 1429.97 will allow the asset to head higher to the range of 1746.30–2153.01.

Resistance levels: 1429, 1746, 2153 | Support levels: 1079, 898, 565


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Basic Guidelines for Using Volume
When analyzing volume, there are usually guidelines used to determine the strength or weakness of a move. As traders, we are more inclined to join strong moves and take no part in moves that show weakness—or we may even watch for an entry in the opposite direction of a weak move.

These guidelines do not hold true in all situations, but they offer general guidance for trading decisions.

1. Trend Confirmation
A rising market should see rising volume. Buyers require increasing numbers and increasing enthusiasm to keep pushing prices higher. Increasing price and decreasing volume might suggest a lack of interest, and this is a warning of a potential reversal. This can be hard to wrap your mind around, but the simple fact is that a price drop (or rise) on little volume is not a strong signal. A price drop (or rise) on large volume is a stronger signal that something in the stock has fundamentally changed.

2. Exhaustion Moves and Volume
In a rising or falling market, we can see exhaustion moves. These are generally sharp moves in price combined with a sharp increase in volume, which signals the potential end of a trend. Participants who waited and are afraid of missing more of the move pile in at market tops, exhausting the number of buyers.

At a market bottom, falling prices eventually force out large numbers of traders, resulting in volatility and increased volume. We will see a decrease in volume after the spike in these situations, but how volume continues to play out over the next days, weeks, and months can be analyzed by using the other volume guidelines.

3. Bullish Signs
Volume can be useful in identifying bullish signs. For example, imagine volume increases on a price decline and then the price moves higher, followed by a move back lower. If, on the move back lower, the price doesn’t fall below the previous low, and if the volume is diminished on the second decline, then this is usually interpreted as a bullish sign.

4. Volume and Price Reversals
After a long price move higher or lower, if the price begins to range with little price movement and heavy volume, then this might indicate that a reversal is underway, and prices will change direction.3

5. Volume and Breakouts vs. False Breakouts
On the initial breakout from a range or other chart pattern, a rise in volume indicates strength in the move. Little change in volume or declining volume on a breakout indicates a lack of interest and a higher probability for a false breakout.

6. Volume History
Volume should be looked at relative to recent history. Comparing volume today to volume 50 years ago might provide irrelevant data. The more recent the data sets, the more relevant they are likely to be.

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A bull market is the condition of a financial market in which prices are rising or are expected to rise. The term "bull market" is most often used to refer to the stock market but can be applied to anything that is traded, such as bonds, real estate, currencies, and commodities.

Because prices of securities rise and fall essentially continuously during trading, the term "bull market" is typically reserved for extended periods in which a large portion of security prices are rising. Bull markets tend to last for months or even years.

  • A bull market is a period of time in financial markets when the price of an asset or security rises continuously.
  • The commonly accepted definition of a bull market is when stock prices rise by 20% after two declines of 20% each.
  • Traders employ a variety of strategies, such as increased buy and hold and retracement, to profit off bull markets.


Understanding Bull Markets
Bull markets are characterized by optimism, investor confidence, and expectations that strong results should continue for an extended period of time. It is difficult to predict consistently when the trends in the market might change. Part of the difficulty is that psychological effects and speculation may sometimes play a large role in the markets.

There is no specific and universal metric used to identify a bull market. Nonetheless, perhaps the most common definition of a bull market is a situation in which stock prices rise by 20%, usually after a drop of 20% and before a second 20% decline. Since bull markets are difficult to predict, analysts can typically only recognize this phenomenon after it has happened. A notable bull market in recent history was the period between 2003 and 2007. During this time, the S&P 500 increased by a significant margin after a previous decline; as the 2008 financial crisis took effect, major declines occurred again after the bull market run.

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Forex, short for foreign exchange, refers to the trading of one currency for another. It is also known as FX.

> Forex markets are the largest in terms of daily trading volume in the world and therefore offer the most liquidity. This makes it easy to enter and exit a position in any of the major currencies within a fraction of a second for a small spread in most market conditions.

> The forex market is traded 24 hours a day, five and a half days a week—starting each day in Australia and ending in New York. The broad time horizon and coverage offer traders several opportunities to make profits or cover losses. The major forex market centers are Frankfurt, Hong Kong, London, New York, Paris, Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo, and Zurich.

> The extensive use of leverage in forex trading means that you can start with little capital and multiply your profits.

> Automation of forex markets lends itself well to rapid execution of trading strategies.

> Forex trading generally follows the same rules as regular trading and requires much less initial capital; therefore, it is easier to start trading forex compared to stocks.

> The forex market is more decentralized than traditional stock or bond markets. There is no centralized exchange that dominates currency trade operations, and the potential for manipulation—through insider information about a company or stock—is lower.

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BTCUSD, the crypto market remains under pressure
The BTC USD pair continues its rapid decline for the third week in a row and fell below the 18000 mark, but currently the price has returned to the 20000 area, which is seen as key for investors.

The main factor of pressure on the cryptocurrency sector is still the sharp tightening of the monetary policy of the US Fed, which creates serious risks of recession in the American economy. As a result, bidders are increasingly abandoning risky assets, including investing in shares of technology companies and cryptocurrencies. It should be noted that at present, the stocks of focused on the digital sector MicroStrategy, Coinbase, Silvergate Capital and others are subject to the greatest negative impact. Thus, the loss of MicroStrategy due to the fall of the market amounted to 1B dollars. Last week, it also became known that the cryptocurrency hedge fund Three Arrows Capital is exploring the possibility of selling its assets, and the Asian-focused crypto lender Babel Finance announced the suspension of work.

In general, digital assets are under serious pressure, and the situation will continue to worsen as the US Fed further increases interest rates.


Technically, the key zone for the "bears" is 20000 - 18750. If it breaks down, the decline can continue to 15625 (Murray [1/8]), 12500 (Murray [0/8]) and 10000. With a breakout of the level of 21875 (Murray [3/8]), an increase in the area of 25000 (Murray [4/8], the middle line of the Bollinger Bands) is not excluded, but it is unlikely to lead to a reversal of the current downward trend, the persistence of which is confirmed by technical indicators: the Bollinger Bands are reversing downwards, and the MACD histogram is stable in the negative zone.   

Resistance levels: 21875, 25000, 31250 | Support levels: 20000, 18750, 15625, 12500, 10000

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The price at which the market is prepared to sell a product. Prices are quoted two-way as Bid/Ask. The Ask price is also known as the Offer.

In FX trading, the Ask represents the price at which a trader can buy the base currency, shown to the left in a currency pair. For example, in the quote USD CHF 1.4527/32, the base currency is USD, and the Ask price is 1.4532, meaning you can buy one US dollar for 1.4532 Swiss francs.

In CFD trading, the Ask also represents the price at which a trader can buy the product. For example, in the quote for UK OIL 111.13/111.16, the product quoted is UK OIL and the Ask price is £111.16 for one unit of the underlying market.

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ETH USD - Murray analysis
The ETHUSD pair continues to trade within a wide descending channel and last week fell to its lower border in the area of the lowest values since December 2020 at 880.

Currently, the price is making an attempt to grow, but for a serious recovery it needs to break above the level of 1562.5 (the middle line of the Bollinger Bands, Fibo retracement of 23.6%, Murray [1/8]). In this case, the movement will continue to the levels of 1875 (Fibo retracement of 38.2%, Murray [2/8]) and 2187.5 (Fibo retracement of 38.2%, Murray [3/8], the upper line of the Bollinger Bands). The key for the "bears" remains the level of 937.50 (Murray [-1/8]), at the breakdown of which the downward dynamics will continue to the area of 625.00 (Murray [-1/8]), 500. The current downward trend persists: the Bollinger Bands have reversed downwards, while the Stochastic is directed upwards, and the MACD histogram is decreasing in the negative zone, which creates the probability of a corrective growth, but is unlikely to lead to a reversal of the current trend.


Resistance levels: 1562.5, 1875, 2187.5 | Support levels: 937.5, 625, 500

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The most basic forms of forex trades are a long trade and a short trade. In a long trade, the trader is betting that the currency price will increase in the future and they can profit from it. A short trade consists of a bet that the currency pair’s price will decrease in the future. Traders can also use trading strategies based on technical analysis, such as breakout and moving average, to fine-tune their approach to trading.

Depending on the duration and numbers for trading, trading strategies can be categorized into four further types:

A scalp trade consists of positions held for seconds or minutes at most, and the profit amounts are restricted in terms of the number of pips. Such trades are supposed to be cumulative, meaning that small profits made in each individual trade add up to a tidy amount at the end of a day or time period. They rely on the predictability of price swings and cannot handle much volatility. Therefore, traders tend to restrict such trades to the most liquid pairs and at the busiest times of trading during the day.

Day trades are short-term trades in which positions are held and liquidated in the same day. The duration of a day trade can be hours or minutes. Day traders require technical analysis skills and knowledge of important technical indicators to maximize their profit gains. Just like scalp trades, day trades rely on incremental gains throughout the day for trading.

In a swing trade, the trader holds the position for a period longer than a day; i.e., they may hold the position for days or weeks. Swing trades can be useful during major announcements by governments or times of economic tumult. Since they have a longer time line, swing trades do not require constant monitoring of the markets throughout the day. In addition to technical analysis, swing traders should be able to gauge economic and political developments and their impact on currency movement.

In a position trade, the trader holds the currency for a long period of time, lasting for as long as months or even years. This type of trade requires more fundamental analysis skills because it provides a reasoned basis for the trade.

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XRP USD - Murrey analysis
The XRP USD pair is moving within a wide downward channel but has been consolidating around 0.3200 for the second week already and, unlike other leading cryptocurrencies, has not yet been able to recover significantly.

The long-term downtrend continues, but for further decline, quotes will need to break through the zone of 0.3200–0.2930. After that, the price will open the way to 0.1953 (Murrey [2/8]) and 0.0977 (Murrey [1/8], the lower border of the downwards channel). The key "bullish" level is 0.3906 (Murrey [4/8]), the breakdown of which will give the prospect of prices recovering to 0.4883 (Murrey [5/8]), 0.5859 (Murrey [6/8]).


Technical indicators do not give a single signal: Bollinger bands are directed downwards, the MACD histogram decreases in the negative zone, and Stochastic is directed upwards.

Resistance levels: 0.3906, 0.4883, 0.5859 | Support levels: 0.2930, 0.1953, 0.0977

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Where is Forex Traded?
Forex is traded primarily via three venues: spot markets, forwards markets, and futures markets. The spot market is the largest of all three markets because it is the “underlying” asset on which forwards and futures markets are based.

Why Do People Trade Currencies?
Companies and traders use forex for two main reasons: speculation and hedging. The former is used by traders to make money off the rise and fall of currency prices, while the latter is used to lock in prices for manufacturing and sales in overseas markets.   

Are Forex Markets Volatile?
Forex markets are among the most liquid markets in the world. Hence, they tend to be less volatile than other markets, such as real estate. The volatility of a particular currency is a function of multiple factors, such as the politics and economics of its country. Therefore, events like economic instability in the form of a payment default or imbalance in trading relationships with another currency can result in significant volatility.

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Which Currencies Can I Trade In?
Currencies with high liquidity have a ready market and therefore exhibit smooth and predictable price action in response to external events. The U.S. dollar is the most traded currency in the world. It features in six of the seven currency pairs with the most liquidity in the markets. Currencies with low liquidity, however, cannot be traded in large lot sizes without significant market movement being associated with the price. Such currencies generally belong to developing countries. When they are paired with the currency of a developed country, an exotic pair is formed. For example, a pairing of the U.S. dollar with India’s rupee (USD/INR) is considered an exotic pair.

How Do I Get Started With Forex Trading?
The first step to forex trading is to educate yourself about the market’s operations and terminology. Next, you need to develop a trading strategy based on your finances and risk tolerance. Finally, you should open a brokerage account. Today, it is easier than ever to open and fund a forex account online and begin trading currencies.

The Bottom Line
For traders—especially those with limited funds—day trading or swing trading in small amounts is easier in the forex market than in other markets. For those with longer-term horizons and larger funds, long-term fundamentals-based trading or a carry trade can be profitable. A focus on understanding the macroeconomic fundamentals that drive currency values, as well as experience with technical analysis, may help new forex traders to become more profitable.

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